• see Ai and Artificial intelligence (disambiguation). Artificial intelligence (AI) is theintelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also
    150 KB (15,974 words) - 17:48, 6 October 2015
  • IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the IEEE Computer Society. It
    2 KB (114 words) - 12:22, 11 April 2015
  • Machine-to-Machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp, based in the NASA Research Park in Moffett Field, California, provides the essential platform for the M2M
    5 KB (365 words) - 20:49, 5 October 2015
  • The Machine Intelligence Research Institute (MIRI), formerly the Singularity Institute and before that the Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence
    19 KB (1,920 words) - 03:46, 23 September 2015
  • Sciencescape uses world-leading machine intelligence to help academics, commercial enterprises, and government organizations solve their science and information
    9 KB (759 words) - 18:06, 7 October 2015
  • Intelligence amplification (IA) (also referred to as cognitive augmentation andmachine augmented intelligence) refers to the effective use of information
    11 KB (1,316 words) - 03:41, 1 August 2015
  • and more. The Machine Intelligence Prize is awarded annually by the British Computer Society for progress towards machine intelligence. The Loebner prize
    13 KB (1,647 words) - 06:57, 27 September 2015
  • For the computer science and machine intelligence articles, see ArtificialIntelligence. Artificial Intelligence System (AIS) was a distributed computing
    4 KB (471 words) - 05:05, 15 May 2015
  • Sankar Kumar Pal (category Artificial intelligence researchers)
    on fuzzy neural network, soft computing, and machine intelligence. He founded theMachine Intelligence Unit in 1993, and the Center for Soft Computing
    8 KB (731 words) - 18:36, 16 September 2015
  • Strategic Computing Initiative (category History of artificial intelligence)
    artificial intelligence from 1983 to 1993. The initiative was designed to support various projects that were required to develop machine intelligence in a prescribed
    5 KB (685 words) - 19:45, 18 November 2011
  • rationality, and artificial intelligence, among other topics. Its administrative costs are supported by the Machine Intelligence Research Institute and the
    8 KB (556 words) - 11:26, 9 October 2015
  • Singularitarianism (category Philosophy of artificial intelligence)
    Internet entrepreneurs Brian Atkins and Sabine Atkins, founded the MachineIntelligence Research Institute to work towards the creation of self-improving
    9 KB (1,049 words) - 16:35, 26 July 2015
  • of low-pass transform". IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and MachineIntelligence 6 (2): 156–170. doi:10.1109/TPAMI.1984.4767500. PMID 21869180. 
    10 KB (1,193 words) - 18:19, 23 September 2015
  • field of pattern recognition (within computer image analysis) and machineintelligence. In honor of the memory of Professor King-Sun Fu, IAPR gives the
    6 KB (378 words) - 14:08, 13 August 2015
  • Dartmouth College in the class of 1975. Kopec later received a PhD in MachineIntelligence from the University of Edinburgh. Kopec has achieved the FIDE International
    4 KB (305 words) - 10:17, 15 August 2015
  • Numenta (category Applied machine learning)
    Numenta is a machine intelligence company that has developed a cohesive theory, core software, technology and applications based on the principles of the
    6 KB (625 words) - 14:10, 5 September 2015
  • Space Science and Engineering Center working on visualization and machineintelligence. He is principal author of the Vis5D, Cave5D and VisAD open source
    5 KB (474 words) - 18:29, 8 December 2014
  • several trade books and textbooks on these and related subjects of machineintelligence. Kosko holds bachelor's degrees in philosophy and in economics
    7 KB (736 words) - 14:09, 21 September 2015
  • Eliezer Yudkowsky (category Artificial intelligence researchers)
    co-founded the nonprofit Machine Intelligence Research Institute (formerly the Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence) in 2000 and continues
    9 KB (760 words) - 14:08, 16 September 2015
  • real-time applications”, IEEE Transactions Pattern Analysis and MachineIntelligence, IEEE Computer Society Press, 19(4): 366-379 (1997) S. Madhvanath
    17 KB (1,667 words) - 14:24, 27 September 2015
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  • Tecuci, Gheorghe (March–April 2012). "Artificial Intelligence". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics (Wiley) 4 (2): 168–180. doi:10.1002/wics.200.
  • Thro, Ellen (1993). Robotics: The Marriage of Computers and Machines. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-2628-9.
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NRC (United States National Research Council) (1999). "Developments in Artificial Intelligence". Funding a Revolution: Government Support for Computing Research. National Academy Press


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  • Legg, Shane; Hutter, Marcus (15 June 2007). A Collection of Definitions of Intelligence (Technical report).IDSIAarXiv:0706.3639. 07-07.


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  • Dreyfus, Hubert; Dreyfus, Stuart (1986). Mind over Machine: The Power of Human Intuition and Expertise in the Era of the Computer. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. ISBN 0-02-908060-6.
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  • Hernandez-Orallo, Jose (2000). "Beyond the Turing Test". Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4): 447–466. doi:10.1023/A:1008367325700.
  • Hernandez-Orallo, J.; Dowe, D. L. (2010). "Measuring Universal Intelligence: Towards an Anytime Intelligence Test". Artificial Intelligence Journal 174 (18): 1508–1539. doi:10.1016/j.artint.2010.09.006.
  • Hinton, G. E. (2007). "Learning multiple layers of representation". Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11: 428–434.doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.09.004.
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AI textbooks 
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  1. Jump up^ maschafilm. "Content: Plug & Pray Film - Artificial Intelligence - Robots -"plugandpray-film.de.
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  1.  Michael Anderson and Susan Leigh Anderson (2011), Machine Ethics, Cambridge University Press.
  2. Jump up to:a b "Machine Ethics"aaai.org.
  3. Jump up^ Rubin, Charles (Spring 2003). "Artificial Intelligence and Human Nature"The New Atlantis 1: 88–100.
  4. Jump up^ Rawlinson, Kevin. "Microsoft's Bill Gates insists AI is a threat". BBC News. Retrieved 30 January2015.
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Beyond the Doubting of a Shadow, A Reply to Commentaries on Shadows of the Mind, Roger Penrose 1996 The links to the original articles he responds to there are easily found in the Wayback machine: Can Physics Provide a Theory of Consciousness? Barnard J. Bars, Penrose's Gödelian Argument etc.
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Gödel 1951: in this lecture, Kurt Gödel uses the incompleteness theorem to arrive at the following disjunction: (a) the human mind is not a consistent finite machine, or (b) there exist Diophantine equationsfor which it cannot decide whether solutions exist. Gödel finds (b) implausible, and thus seems to have believed the human mind was not equivalent to a finite machine, i.e., its power exceeded that of any finite machine. He recognized that this was only a conjecture, since one could never disprove (b). Yet he considered the disjunctive conclusion to be a "certain fact".
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  1. Nils Nilsson writes: "Simply put, there is wide disagreement in the field about what AI is all about" (Nilsson 1983, p. 10).
  2. Jump up to:a b Biological intelligence vs. intelligence in general:
    • Russell & Norvig 2003, pp. 2–3, who make the analogy with aeronautical engineering.
    • McCorduck 2004, pp. 100–101, who writes that there are "two major branches of artificial intelligence: one aimed at producing intelligent behavior regardless of how it was accomplioshed, and the other aimed at modeling intelligent processes found in nature, particularly human ones."
    • Kolata 1982, a paper in Science, which describes McCarthy's indifference to biological models. Kolata quotes McCarthy as writing: "This is AI, so we don't care if it's psychologically real"[1]. McCarthy recently reiterated his position at the AI@50 conference where he said "Artificial intelligence is not, by definition, simulation of human intelligence" (Maker 2006).
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Artificial brain arguments: AI requires a simulation of the operation of the human brain
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 Diamond 2003: "Rosalind Picard, a genial MIT professor, is the field's godmother; her 1997 book, Affective Computing, triggered an explosion of interest in the emotional side of computers and their users."
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